Tuesday, June 16, 2020
LAW, STATE AND RELIGION IN INDIA* ABSTRACT As defined in Oxford dictionary, secularism is the morality which should be based in the ground of the well being of mankind in the present life to the exclusion from all consideration drawn in the belief of God and future study. It deals with the individual as a citizen irrespective of his or her religion. It is also not constitutionally connected with any particular religion nor does it seek to promote interfere with religion guarantees the individual and corporate frame of religion. It deals with the individual as a citizen irrespective of his or her religion. The modern notion of secularism is based upon two fold understandings. Firstly, state must be equidistance from all religions should adopt a neutral attitude with respect to any religion. Secondly, the state must not have any relation with any religion, i.e. state must not have a religion of its own. Secularism is one among the fundamental aspects of the Constitution of India. However, being secular does not mean irreligious, as explained by the great Statesman-Philosopher Dr. Radhakrishnan. The concept of secularism advocated in the Constitution of India is based upon the idea of justice, liberty, equality and dignity of individual as well as their groups. The manuscript briefly states and explains the constitutional, statutory, and judicial framework of IndiaÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s religion-state relations, and the unique balance that is found in that framework between secularism and freedom of religionÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ namely that, in India, the law of the land determines the scope of religion in society; it is not religion that determines the scope of the law. Keywords: India, religion, state, law, constitution, judiciary. INTRODUCTION The term religion has no compact or exact definition. In any case, when it comes to acknowledgement of religion as conviction or belief, it needs legitimate justification to qualify as knowledge or as the number same of religious masters and religious writings articulate as way of living. When all is said in general terms, religion is an organised accumulation of belief systems, social and cultural systems, and worldviews that relates mankind to most profound sense of being and, now and again, to good values. In terms of associating law and religion in context of India, state i.e. government plays an extremely critical character as it is the state that structures laws and choose the about the country. Constitutional, India is a secula r nation and in this manner has no State religion. Notwithstanding, it has created throughout the years its interesting idea of secularism that is on a very basic level not the same as the parallel American idea of secularism obliging complete partition of chapel and state, as additionally from the French ideal of lacit. Regardless of the acceptable amalgamation of all the fundamental principle of secularism into different provisions of the Constitution when initially enacted, its preamble did not then incorporated Secularism, and the statement in the short description of the nation called India as a Sovereign Democratic Republic. This was, obviously, not an unintentional oversight however a decently figured choice intended to maintain a strategic distance from any hesitation that India was to receive any of the western thoughts of a mainstream secular state. Twenty-five years after the fact by which time Indias unconventional idea of secularism had been completely settled th rough its legal choices and state practices, the preamble to the Constitution was altered to incorporate the saying Secular (alongside Socialist) to pronounce India to be a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic. The motivation behind this Amendment was planned simply to define clearly the idea of SecularismÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬Ãâ¦Ã ¸ in the Constitution. Indian Secularism does not consider a secular state as irreligious or atheistic State. India has antiquated the doctrine that state ensures all religion yet meddles with none. SECULARISM IN INDIA Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" A PROGRESSIVE GROWTH The development of secularism started in Western Europe in nineteenth century. At first, it began with the plans splitting far from religion. Secularism entered Indian Politics without precedent for the later a large portion of the nineteenth century when English educated people of distinctive religious group created The Indian National Congress. The Congress in its session in Karachi in 1931 determined that the state ought to watches non-partisanship as to all religion. Constitution creators dodged the expression of secular. Prof. K.T. Shah made two endeavours to present the saying by recommending an amendment. However, he failed on both instances for the reason of resistance from Dr. Ambedkar. Maybe Dr. Ambedkar felt that the utilization of the interpretation liberty of faith, religion, belief or worship and equality of status and opportunity in the Preamble and provisions of fundamental rights are expresses that India is a Secular State. On the other hand, 42nd amendment of the Constitution included the statement Secular into the Preamble of Constitution for further illumination. Secularism is a basic feature in Indian Constitution. It was held in Kasvananda v. State of Kerala, 1973 and S.R. Bommai v. Union of India, 1994. The Court further held that religion cant be blended with the secular activity of state. The general test with which the memb ers of Constituent Assembly in 1946 were faced with was, above all else, how to suit Indias assorted qualities in a current, secular state which could guarantee equivalent rights and equivalent chances to its natives. The result was a state which most researchers have portrayed as a secualr state, in spite of the fact that the notion secular itself was just included with the Forty-Second Amendment Act approved in 1976. LEGAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL FOUNDATIONS Constitutionally, India is a secular country, however any wall of separation between religion and state exists not in law or in practice the two can, and regularly do, interface and intercede in one anothers affairs inside the lawfully prescribed and judicially settled parameters. Indian secularism does not oblige an aggregate expatriation of religion from the societal or even state affairs. The main demand of secularism, as commanded by the Indian Constitution, is that the state must treat all religious ideologies and their followers totally equal and without any discrimination in all matters under its direct or indirect control. The Constitution of India holds in its part on Fundamental Rights a few provisions that stress complete and legitimate equality of its citizens and restrict any sort of religion-based discrimination between them. Among these procurements are the accompanying: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âThe State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âThe State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth, or any of them. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âNo citizen shall, on grounds only of religion . . . be subjected to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to access to or use of various public places.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã  Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âNo citizen shall, on grounds only of religion . . . be ineligible for, or discriminat ed against, in respect of any employment or office under the State.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã  Furthermore, article 25 to 29 of the Constitution of India additionally manages individuals right to religious freedom. Moreover there is an extensive corpus of legislative enactments in India managing, religious matters relating to various religious communities. These enactments, and in addition to the state practice, are fully in-tune to the Constitutional mandates related to secularism and parameters of religious freedoms. While piece(s) of enactment exists for each religious communities in India, Chapter 15 of the Indian Penal Code is exclusively committed altogether to punishments for offenses related to religion. In various cases, the punishments for these offenses are quite rigorous. In context of civil law, the Representation of the People Act of 1951 restricts the utilization of religion and religious images/symbols with a perspective of underwriting ones candidature for electi ons or for contrarily influencing the election of other candidate. Making an appeal to vote or refraining any individual from voting on the ground of his religion, race, caste, community, or dialect, and additionally the utilization of religious images for the advancement of the possibilities of ones own election, or for preferentially influencing the decision of any contestant, is a corrupt practice. DIMENSIONS OF INDIAN SECULARISM- THE ROLE OF STATE AND LAW So far we have seen that the Indian Constitution proposes not just to give the Indian citizen an opportunity of freedom of conscience and choice of religion, but also to keep their religion and religious undertakings out of the affairs of the state.We have also seen how, the provisions in the Constitution, keeping the state out of matters of religion (in reference to provisions specified in the Representation of People Act). After introduction to the Constitutional provisions with regard to secularism in India, it is the opportune time to discuss about the nature of secularism adopted in India. But before exchanging over to it, just have a speedy recap of what the great(s) need said in regards to secularism in Indian context. Dr. Radhakirshna clarifies that secularism doesnt mean irreligious. It implies regard to all faith and religion. Secular state does not distinguish itself with any specific religion. In Indian context, Dr. Henry Austin says that: secularism implies tolerance, generosity and understanding of majority community. In India, the presence of profound religious variation has guaranteed a conceptual reaction to issues within as well as between religions. Without taking it as a blueprint, we can look at it and gain from it, about peace between communities, community-specific rights, the rights of minorities, the permeable separation between the advanced/modern state and religion, and the abilities to oblige or accommodate the last. This is pretty much a positive connection (se cularism) between religion and state as I mentioned in the earlier part of manuscript. My contention is supported by the perspectives of Supreme Court in Manohar Joshis case, whereby Justice J.S. Verma gave dubious meaning to the term of Hindutava by expressing that it implies a way of life. Again in Swamiars case, for the very first time Supreme Court relied upon Art. 24 and Art. 26 to invalidate the provision of state legislation. In Saifuddins case, the court expressed that the fundamental rights of Art. 25 and 26 are not limited to matters of doctrine or belief; they also extend to acts done in pursuance of religion. Going to the contention of permeable separation between religion and state, the judgment of the Supreme Court in Bhuri Nath v. State of Jammu and Kashmir is of great vitality where the HonÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ble Supreme court held that the appointment of the head priest of the Vesno Devi Shrine could be controlled or done by the State. Hence by virtue of thi s judgment, it could be gathered that there exists an agreeable boundary or demarcation between the law or state and religion. Therefore, Secularism takes out God from the matters of the State and guarantees that nobody can be discriminated on the ground of religion. The issues among and religious groups were/are satisfactorily managed by the government in Indian. For instance Anti-conversion laws were enacted to check unethical conversion of people from one individual to another. It has long history in India and some princely states enforced them as early as 1930s. The first post-colonial anti-conversion laws were passed in the states of Orissa and Madhya Pradesh in the 1960s. Some states enforced anti-conversion laws mainly against Muslims in early of 1980s. In any case over recent years, despite of possessing such affirmative qualities, secular states, for all intents and purpose all around, have gone under an apprehensive strain. Scarcely surprising, political secularism, the principle that protects them, has hardly been subjected to extreme feedback. A few scholars have presumed that this study is morally and ethically so profound and supported that it is the time to forsake political secularism. In Indian context, it could be explained by tracing back from the communal violence after the demolition of Babri Masjid in modern day Ayodhya controversy, burning train comprising of Hindu passengers and the uproars tailing it, to the example of communal strains, a year ago in Assam that caught the headlines. This is so, because, the entire evolution of humanity has been from Ignorance and weakness, before natural and social powers for understanding of these forces clutched them. The basis of religion is obliviousness of the genuine nature of these powers, powerlessness before them the fear of the invisible almighty. Consequently, for instance, a large portion of the vedic God, say, Agni, Surya, Indra and so on were believed as representati on/personification of such natural or social powers. These powers could either profit man or damage him. For e.g. timely rains could benefit agriculture, but failure or delay in rain could ruin the crops and whether there would be timely rain or not, is entirely beyond mans control. Therefore, rain was seen as the representation of Indra. Since man feels defenceless before these strengths, which can antagonistically influence his life, he needs religion as a mental support. When people feel unsecure about this psychological support their emotions burst and result is Babri demolition, Godhara kand or yatras of different political parties which are organised to support the feelings of the people. We see that our Constitution secular and pragmatic. Then again, the certainty remains that despite our Constitution is pragmatic in its approach, our social order is still backward and semi-feudal, and this dichotomy give rise to a host of problems. Since in feudal or semi-feudal socie ty religion had influential hang on mens personalities and mind, the vested interests seek to exploit this situation by perpetuating and accentuating caste and communal divisions and by sowing the seeds of discord, among the people. This activity has been stepped up in recent times. Religion and case has separated people. What is it that will unite us? As I believe, sciences can be the uniting factor. By science I mean not simply material science, however, the whole logical standpoint, the exploratory investigation of our issues, and the experimental answer for those problems. Therefore with the proper way of time, we have likely adjusted or attuned to secularism. This is the reason the very doctrine of secularism, regardless of n number of positives has been seriously criticized in most part of the world including India. I, however, am not convinced by this criticism. The feedback for secularism looks unanswerable because critics have focused on mainstream conceptions developed in largely religiously homogenous societies. It is high time for us to shift our focus and check our tendency to compare Indian virtue of secularism to that of the remaining world, instead one must start believing in it. We need a Xenophanian approach, a pre Socrates philosopher and consider that even though the Indian rule may not be absolutely true however one must be, at least, ready to accept it to be true. Consequently, we will start perceiving secularism in different light, i.e. in ethical and moral prespective, not in absolutely religious sense as such, but in context homogenization and institutional domination. Justice Katju again opines that, in the forthcoming days the judiciary (if considered as state) shall have to assume a vital part in the individuals walk towards all-round progress. This is on essentially due to the fact that, higher judiciary is objectively so placed in our Constitutional scheme that it is in a position to give correct guidance to t he people. Because of their autonomous Constitutional status the Judges can take a more panoramic and long term view than other authorities. Hence, they are in a position to valiantly put to forward progressive and dynamic thoughts which will be of incredible help to the people in their battle for social and economic upliftment. CONCLUSION In light of the aforesaid it can be concluded that in an ideal secular state there ought to be admiration for all religion and states interference should to be least in the matter of religion with the except when public order, morality or health is in question. Secularism has been one of the fundamentals of the Constitution and accordingly citizens are equal and free, irrespective of their caste colour, sex, language, religion, or status. However, the circumstances have changed after independence and many times the secular status of India was challenged for example at times of Godhara riot in Gujarat. Hostile to change laws or execution of U niform Civil Code is generally taken as an issue to the characters of minorities and in this way an uniform agreement has not been framed in this respect. Anti-conversion laws or implementation of Uniform Civil Code is being taken as a threat to the identities of minorities and therefore a uniform consensus has not been formed in this regard. However, despite of foregoing issues issues, India has been able to balanced the multiculturalism of the society and managed to retain the secular character of its polity. While in many countries especially from the third world, a secular authority has crumbled vice versa in face of conflicting traditions. Judiciary in India has also played a vital role by balancing in a harmonious way the matter of religion. Moreover, the citizen of India should not forget the dream of framers of the constitution and the ancient philosophy of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âSarva Dharma SambhavahÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã . The practice and interpretation of secularism in India have f rom the very beginning been, and remain, sensitive to and reconciled with the ground realities. This sensitivity and reconciliation make IndiaÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"s religion-state relations both unique and fascinating. A study of IndiaÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"s particular models of secularism and religious liberty reveals an appreciable balance of religious and secular interests. A Secular State must strive to achieve a balance between the freedom of religion and the right to practice religion and therefore it should reform the religion as per the provision of the constitution. However, it is very complicated and difficult for the State to reform the religion particularly when personal law is in question. The State makes the law or interferes with religious norms of the persons only when the existing religious norms seem to have unjustified and have done a lot of cruelty to the section of citizens. Sati, Child marriage, female foeticide, untouchability, suppression of Scheduled castes and Schedu led tribes etc could be conceived as epitome of this phenomenon. *SIDDHARTH BADKUL, B.A., LL.B. (Hons.), Semester VII, University of Petroleum Energy Studies, Dehradun While religion is difficult to define, one standard model of religion, used in religious studies courses, was proposed by Clifford Geertz, who simply called it a cultural system (Clifford Geertz, Religion as a Cultural System, 1973). A critique of Geertzs model by Talal Asad categorized religion as an anthropological category. (Talal Asad, The Construction of Religion as an Anthropological Category, 1982.)  The French concept of lacitÃÆ'Ã © has been described ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢as an essential compromise whereby religion is relegated entirely to the private sphere and has no place in public life whatsoever.ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬- Rachael F. Goldfarb, Comment, Taking the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¾PulpitÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬Ãâ¦Ã ¸ Out of the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âBully PulpitÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã : The Establishment Clause and Presidential Appeals to Divine Authori ty, 24 PENN ST. INTÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"L L. REV. 209, 216 (2005).  INDIA CONST. Preamble amended by the Constitution (Forty-Second Amendment) Act, 1976 (enforced since Jan. 3, 1977).  Vasudev v. Vamanji, ILR 1881 Bom.80  INDIA CONST. art. 14.  Id. art. 15, cl. 1.  Id. art. 15, cl. 2.  Id. art. 16, cl. 2.  INDIAN PENAL CODE 295Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å"98 (1860)  See Representation of the People Act, No. 43 of 1951, 123(3), available at https://indiacode.nic.in/fullact1.asp?tfnm=195143.  AIR 1997 SC 1711  St. XavierÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"s College v. State of Gujarat, AIR 1974 SC 19 at 1414.  Faisal Mohammad Ali ,CHRISTIAN ANGER AT CONVERSION LAW, BBC News (Central India),Aug, 2006,available at http;//news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south.asia/5246328.stm.  The Orissa Freedom of Religion Act,1967 and Madhya Pradesh Dharma Swantantraya Adhiniyam,1968  Arpita Anant, ANTI-CONVERSION LAWS, THE HINDU, available at https://www.hinduonne t.com/thehindu/op/2002/12/17/stories/2002121700110200.htm., as accessed on 04.09. 10  Justice M.Katju, LAW, RELIGION AND POLITICS, J.T.R.I. JOURNAL Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" First Year, Issue 2 Year April- June, 1995  Id.  Id.  Id.
Monday, May 18, 2020
Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) is an information infrastructure providing access and enabling interoperability among spatial information based on standards, policies, regulations and coordination mechanisms (Groot R, 1997). The methods for creating SDI undergone radical changes in the recent years like the shift from the product-led model or data-producer-led model to process-led model or data-user model, etc. However, there are some limitations challenging the SDI growth like the lack of standards to handle linked geospatial data, etc. The goal of this essay is to detail the concepts for the creation of an improved SDI in the year 2019. The intended SDI integrates the existing developments in the field to the relevant emerging trendsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦For example, services like WFS will now be Software as a Service (SaaS) as they offer functionality, such as spatio-temporal query. Similarly, processing services like WPS (Web processing Services) where the computation resources are provided via PaaS (Platform as a Service) and IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service). The benefits of using a cloud computing infrastructure from a networking perspective are standardized service interfaces between different clouds; the existing publish-find-bind pattern for service interaction can be reused. The SDI can incorporate data mining techniques that would help in creation of geospatial or aspatial relationships between data based on the ontology or geographic information. This would help recognize patterns in data and help us to find auxiliary information. Ã¢â¬ ¢ People The future SDI would encourage the participation of public sector like government agencies, private sector like companies and citizens (Internet users). To increase the awareness of this SDI, there is some functionality in the SDI that benefits directly the end user and increases the ease of participation, like providing a set of applications related to day-to-day life. Willingness to share data should be cultivated with the help of public sector agencies, by giving them the confidence and belief. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Policies and Institutional Arrangements The infrastructure supports a number of standards related toShow MoreRelatedReflection Paper On Sdi944 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSDI REFLECTION PAPER The Strength Deployment Inventory (SDI) is a self-assessment tool designed to provide a picture of how one behaves or is motivated. After completing a series of questions, a personalized report was created mapping out my personal motivators into categories of Blue (concern for people) Red (concern for performance) and Green (concern for process). 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After a next couple years, the Squirrel Defense Initiative (SDI, Inc.) was co-founded by Ed and Bo in October of 1998. Developing the bird feeders (which actually look more like bird houses) into two designs, the company, now including their third partner Scott Wilson, estimated that the average cost of buildingRead MoreSweet Dreams Incorporated Case Study1268 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIncorporated (SDI) utilizes two manufacturing plants both in North Carolina and South Florida to produce mattresses and box springs. SDI has encountered financial difficulty since the beginning of the 1990s that has been prolonged due to the ineffective strategies they have implemented. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Did the North Win the Civil War before it Began? I agree with the idea that the North had won the Civil War before it began to the extent of LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s conservative political stands. Trying to receive the favor of the South while winning in the North would require Lincoln to take neutral stands in heated political issues like slavery. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t really wan by the North until he broke away from these stands to enact the Emancipation Proclamation and turn the tides of war in favor of the North. Ã¢â¬Å"This Lincoln always publicly condemned the abolitionists who fought slavery by extra constitutional means Ã¢â¬â and condemned also the mobs who deprived them of their right of free speech and free press.Ã¢â¬ (Holfstadter, Lincoln and the Self-MadeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It would be like a baseball team fighting to protect their right to play with footballs. The SouthÃ¢â¬â¢s dominating strategy in winning the civil war was attrition. They believed they could wear down the political will of the North if they held out long enough to make the Northerners tired and question value of the means to achieve the ends. Military stalemates, guerilla war tactics and inconclusive battles would help the South achieve this goal. Ã¢â¬Å"Confederate armies did not have to invade and conquer the North: they needed only to hold out long enough to force the North to the conclusion that the price of conquering the South and annihilating its armies was too high, as Britain had concluded in 1781 and as the United States concludedÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Why Did the Confederacy Lose?, pg 117)The South really enjoyed McClellanÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in the Southern theatre with his tendency to retreat when he could have won. This was another helpful hand the South would need to cause attrition. In response, Lincoln knew he had to do two things to prevent attrition a nd win the war more quickly. He needed to fire McClellan, and shift the theme of the war in the view of the North so that it would not lose its thunder. He did this by issuing the Emancipation Proclamation and converting the war for unionism into the war for morality. TheShow MoreRelatedTo What Extent Do You Agree or Disagree with the Idea That the North H1086 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesI agree with the idea that the North had won the Civil War before it began to the extent of Lincoln s conservative political stands. Trying to receive the favor of the South while winning in the North would require Lincoln to take neutral stands in heated political issues like slavery. It wasn t really wan by the North until he broke away from these stands to enact the Emancipation Proclamation and turn the tides of war in favor of the North. This Lincoln always publicly condemned the abolitionistsRead MoreThe War Between The North And The South993 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbetween the North and the South. There is many reason into why the United States had a war between the North and the South. The United States was divided depending on location and personal sentiments. People in the United States sometimes think that this war was only fought over slavery, but there was many reason in why the Union and the Confederate States of America fought. The war was fought on many reason such as the idea of slavery, statesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights, trade, and tariffs. The Civil War lasted forRead MoreThe Battle of Fort Sumter Essay1497 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe firing on that fort will inaugurate a civil war greater than any the world has yet seenÃ¢â¬ ¦you will lose us every friend at the North. You will wantonly strike a hornetÃ¢â¬â¢s nest which extends from mountains to ocean. Legions now quiet will swarm out and string us to death. It is unnecessary. It put us in the wrong. It is fatal. Ã¢â¬âRobert Toombs. (Boerner paragraph 2). The Civil War impacted the course of history forever. 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One result of the Civil War was that Congress put into action the 13th amendment, banning slavery. The North were fighting for the freedom of slaves while on the other hand the South opposed this and fought to keep slavery legal. The North had many thingsRead MoreThe Civil War Was A Devastating Time For The United States Of America883 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Civil War was a devastating time for the United States of America. During this time the United States was divided. The Civil War was a four year long battle. It is known as one of the bloodiest battles ever fought. Consequently it was fought between people of the same country. We were divided between the North and the South. The cause of the Civil War was slavery. The North was a gainst it and wanted slavery abolished. On the other hand the South did not want to part with slavery. Both the NorthRead MoreThe Lost Cause : The Lost Cause Of The Civil War1572 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The Civil War ravaged the country. The number of American casualties during the Civil War was greater than the number of casualties that occurred during every other war with American involvement combined. The South was particularly devastated; most of the war was fought there. The plantation economy that the South had relied on for 200 years had been dismantled by the Emancipation Proclamation. Entire cities, such as Richmond, Virginia, had been burned to the ground, and it seemed as thoughRead MoreKamal Abokor . 2/06/2017. Period 7-8. Research Paper.1583 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesNashville on the Civil war The Battle of Nashville was an important battle in the Civil war which took place in December 1864 during the Civil War, The once powerful Confederate Army of Tennessee was nearly destroyed when the Union Army led by Ulysses S. Grant swarmed over rebel trenches around Nashville. That represented the end of large scale fighting in the American Civil War. The Battle of Nashville was a two day long Campaign that was crucial in determining the outcome of the Civil war and gave theRead MoreReasons For The Civil War1516 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesKaylea Simas U.S. History Mr. Burkey 11 December 2015 The Civil War There had been many misunderstandings between the North and the South in the years that led up to the Civil War, but the most tragic misunderstanding of all was that neither side realized, until it was too late, that the other side was desperate. Not until the war had actually begun would men see that their rivals really meant to fight? By that time it was too late to do anything but go on fighting. Southerners had been talkingRead More The Killer Angels and the Battle of Gettysburg Essay822 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesto be free, and their desire to set slaves free was the cause of the Civil War. Just before the Battle of Gettysburg, Colonel Lawrence Chamberlain of the 20th Maine gave a speech to a group of mutineers. He told them that the war in which they were fighting was unlike any war in history. The war in which they were fighting was not for money, property or power. It was a war to set other men free. After the battle began, Sergeant Tom Chamberlain asked a group of prisoners why they were
Question: Discuss about the Formal and Informal Learning System. Answer: Introduction In todays scenario the organization relies on the performance of employees. The organizations workplace environment majorly impacts the performance level of employees. The major factors that the employees must have to increase their performance are their interpersonal desire, both emotionally and physically. The proper workplace environment for employees will help them to present in the office hours regularly and increase their performance and productivity in todays competitive scenario (Abbas et al., 2014). The factors which influence the workplace environment are physical environment, psychosocial factors and balance of work life. However, there are factors which negatively affects the performance of employees and they are improper infrastructure, dirty places, negligence by the upper management and others. How work environment effects employees performance? What are the factors that enhances employees productivity? The aim of this research is to analyze the effect of workplace environment on employees performance with emphasis on factors of working environment and employees performance. Conceptual Framework The physical environment majorly influence the behaviors and performance of the employees. The aspects of physical environment comprises of surrounding functionality and spatial layout that impacts the employees performance (Deery Jago, 2015). The spatial layout aspect is described as the layout of the of the work environment infrastructure such as arrangement of equipment, machinery and furnishings, and their shape and size. The spatial layout influences the conversation between the employees. The functionality is the other aspect that is described as the ability of the spatial layout to facilitate performance and achievements of the objectives. The physical environment of the workplace consists however, not limited to the satisfaction level, heating, ventilation and lighting (Lu et al., 2014). The broader perspective is to provide better office layout and impressive decors to improve the employees experience and thus better performance. The better space management and formal seati ng arrangements like chairs placed front-to-front encourages social interaction. This shows that employees will be more engaged in the working environment leading to better performance. The factor that is considered a predominant issues in workplace environment is psychosocial factor. The psychosocial factors refers to the communication between the working conditions and environment, functions, effort, family members and individual person (Reb, Narayanan Chaturvedi, 2014). The psychosocial factors consist of six major areas. This major areas are workload management, personal control of an individual over the job, a clear role and superiors and colleagues support. The other two are positive work relations, control over sense in the changing environment of workplace. The individual association of a person with the working environment helps to lower the stress level (De Been Beijer, 2014). The employees behavioral factors affects the performance of employees as it can lead to the varied nature and function of changes in job satisfaction. The job satisfaction is another factor that affects the individuals performance. The other factors of that positively or negatively impact the performance of employees are support from supervisor, styles of leadership and role consistency. The style of furnishings, dcor and physical symbols can be served as a symbolic feature to enhance performance of employees. The balance of work life is necessary to improve the performance of employees. The precise definition of work life balance is that the individuals spending adequate time at their jobs as well as in their personal life such as family and friends (Schilpzand, De Pater Erez, 2016). The balance of work life is an important need for an individual to have satisfied and better functioning at work and at home. This is required to balance emotional, temporal and behavior demands of responsibilities for self and family. The aspects to measure the balance of work life are conflicts or work life and extracurricular (Dane Brummel, 2014). The employees if unable to achieve balance in work life and personal life then this can result in decreasing performance of employees. The factors that helps to achieve better work life balance are part-time work and flexibility of work. The other criteria to measure the work life balance are as follows. The first criteria is extent to which employees feel sati sfied and successful in balancing their life both in terms of personal and work. The second criteria is the extent to which an individual faces conflict in balancing personal life and work life. Theory of foundation There are many theories that has been explained regarding the relationship between employees performance and workplace environment. The two factors which perfectly describes this study are Herzberg Two Factor Theory and Affective Events Theory. The Herzberg Two Factor Theory was introduced in 1959 by Frederick Herzberg. This theory explains the relation between employee performance and workplace environment. The two factors defined by Herzberg to decide the employees performance levels, work attitudes and hygiene factors. Herzberg states that intrinsic factor is considered as motivation factors which will maximize job satisfaction of employees. The extrinsic factor is considered as hygiene factors that prevent dissatisfaction of any employee. The theory of Herzberg states that improving the workplace environment helps to improve the performance of employees and motivates them to perform better (Alshmemri, Shahwan-Akl Maude, 2017). The major concentration of Herzberg is on the necessity of internal job factors that influence employees and motivate them to perform better. According to Herzberg, the opportunity for employees is to do planning, performing and assessing their work. The theory of Herzberg is considered to best f or motivating employees by intrinsic factors than any other factors. However, there are different opinions proposed by other scholars that the first two versions are not appropriate. The two versions of Herzberg Theory are not valid or supported by any proof of study according to other scholars. However, the two version does support the theory as all the theory has been outstandingly working without any disapproval (Manuti et al., 2015). The changing environment poses different requirements and hence, developing new methods for analysis will go long in the future. The Affective Events Theory was introduced in 1996 by Howard M. Weiss and Russel Cropanzo. This theory explains the relationship between internal influences of employees and their response to the events that occur in the work place environment, affecting their job satisfaction, performance and commitment to organization. The theory proposes that positive and negative incidents at workplace influences psychological impact on job satisfaction of employees. This results into long lasting reactions through satisfaction of jobs, employees performance and commitment to organization. The Affective Events Theory triggers affective responses among the employees and these responses influence workplace environment behavior and cognition (Cropanzano Dasborough, 2015). The Affective Events Theory is however, restricted to the events that occur internally in an organization. The theory considers the specific events and how they lead to behavioral and emotional responses in workplace environment. Factors of workplace environment The factors of workplace environment that may influence workplace environment positively or negatively to achieve maximum performance of employees. The factors are physical factors, workplace rewards, leadership or management style, training and development and balance of work life (Yoerger, Crowe Allen, 2015). The first factor is physical factors that include are infrastructure and arrangements of office equipment and materials. This factor gives comfort and hence leads to better performance of employees. The second factor is workplace rewards factors can be intrinsic or extrinsic. The intrinsic rewards are attaining their projects or completion of task whereas extrinsic rewards are pay, work condition, benefits fringe and security (Caruso, 2014). The third factor is reward factor influences the employee performance by helping them to enhance their skills and knowledge. This will help to motivate employees to increase their productivity. The fourth factor is leadership or managemen t styles factors where the leadership style of every manager has a noteworthy impact on staffs morale. The morale is an essential aspect in the performance of employees. The leadership styles such as motivational, influential and others affects the employees performance in terms of stress, job satisfaction and others (Leroy et al., 2015). Thus proper leadership style from the managers is necessary so that it cannot affect employees morale and help them to improve their performance. Factors affecting performance of employee The factors affecting the performance of employees individually and collectively can have either negative or positive impact. The factors for employee performance are motivation, culture of organization and commitment to organization (Hirsch, 2017). The first factor is motivation factor that encourages a persons desire to engage in organizational activity to increase their work performance. The motivation factors has two aspects and they are intrinsic and extrinsic. The intrinsic aspects are responsibility, developing skills, challenges in work, act of freedom and others (Shuck Reio Jr, 2014). The extrinsic aspects are monetary terms such as salary, promotion and benefits. The second factors is culture of organization where expected and acceptable organizational behaviors enhance the performance of employees. The third factor is commitment to organization where employee is bound to the rules and regulation of the organization where the employees are committed to their work. There have been various studies done in the past to show that environment of workplace has either positive or negative impact on employees performance. The workplace environment is perceived as environment where the employees will stay in the organization for long (Paill et al., 2014). This can be done only when the organization fulfil their social, extrinsic and intrinsic needs. Hence, the workplace environment has major role to impact employees performance. The secondary data collected from Forbes and CNBC, to find the effect of workplace environment on employees performance, factors affecting employees performance and factors of workplace environment. On Forbes website, the impact of physical workspace on employee performance have been provided with various ways to enhance workspace (Morgan, 2015). The four key areas identified are focus, collaboration, learning and socializing. The physical workspace requirement are small meeting rooms, co-working cafes and others. The CNBC website provides survey of workplace effect on employee which shows that 58% of employees require private spaces for solving problems (Belk, 2017). The other finding is that 54% of employees find their workplace environment distracting. This articles will be used to further to find out the needs and requirements of employees and what are their perspectives of an ideal workplace environment. The survey will help to understand the growing concerns of employees for th eir workplace environment and how to achieve an ideal workplace. From secondary data, we get information on what are the factors that impact the performance of employees in workplace environment. It shows that along with infrastructure of workplace, impact of surrounding people also helps to boost performance. The other finding is that employees need more privacy in workplace and lack of privacy affect their performance. The comparison for data from secondary sources and the findings from this research paper are as follows. The data collected from secondary data shows the analysis of employees and workplace environment in the current competitive scenario in a practical way. However, the findings of this report shows the analysis through theoretical factors and the more general factors for employees performance and workplace environment. The secondary data is practical as per the current organizational structures and functions whereas the research finding are theoretical and more general that has been from the past years. Gantt Chart Task Start Date End Date Duration (in days) Project Proposal 06/04/2018 26/04/2018 20 Literature Review 26/04/2018 13/05/2018 18 Data Collection 13/05/2018 19/05/2018 4 Data Analysis 19/05/2018 01/06/2018 12 Submission of final report 01/06/2018 21/06/2018 20 References Abbas, M., Raja, U., Darr, W., Bouckenooghe, D. (2014). Combined effects of perceived politics and psychological capital on job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and performance.Journal of Management,40(7), 1813-1830. Alshmemri, M., Shahwan-Akl, L., Maude, P. (2017). Herzbergs two-factor theory.Life Science Journal,14(5). Belk, W. (2017).58% of high-performance employees say they need more quiet work spaces.CNBC. Retrieved 6 April 2018, from https://www.cnbc.com/2017/03/15/58-of-high-performance-employees-say-they-need-more-quiet-work-spaces.html Caruso, C. C. (2014). Negative impacts of shiftwork and long work hours.Rehabilitation Nursing,39(1), 16-25. Cropanzano, R., Dasborough, M. T. (2015). Dynamic models of well-being: Implications of affective events theory for expanding current views on personality and climate.European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology,24(6), 844-847. Dane, E., Brummel, B. J. (2014). Examining workplace mindfulness and its relations to job performance and turnover intention.Human Relations,67(1), 105-128. De Been, I., Beijer, M. (2014). The influence of office type on satisfaction and perceived productivity support.Journal of Facilities Management,12(2), 142-157. Deery, M., Jago, L. (2015). Revisiting talent management, work-life balance and retention strategies.International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management,27(3), 453-472. Hirsch, B. T. (2017). What do unions do for economic performance?. InWhat do unions do?(pp. 201-245). Routledge. Leroy, H., Anseel, F., Gardner, W. L., Sels, L. (2015). Authentic leadership, authentic followership, basic need satisfaction, and work role performance: A cross-level study.Journal of Management,41(6), 1677-1697. Lu, C. Q., Wang, H. J., Lu, J. J., Du, D. Y., Bakker, A. B. (2014). Does work engagement increase personjob fit? The role of job crafting and job insecurity.Journal of Vocational Behavior,84(2), 142-152. Manuti, A., Pastore, S., Scardigno, A. F., Giancaspro, M. L., Morciano, D. (2015). Formal and informal learning in the workplace: a research review.International journal of training and development,19(1), 1-17. Morgan, J. (2015).Forbes Welcome.Forbes.com. Retrieved 6 April 2018, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/jacobmorgan/2015/12/03/how-the-physical-workspace-impacts-the-employee-experience/#6421d6eb779e Paill, P., Chen, Y., Boiral, O., Jin, J. (2014). The impact of human resource management on environmental performance: An employee-level study.Journal of Business Ethics,121(3), 451-466. Reb, J., Narayanan, J., Chaturvedi, S. (2014). Leading mindfully: Two studies on the influence of supervisor trait mindfulness on employee well-being and performance.Mindfulness,5(1), 36-45. Schilpzand, P., De Pater, I. E., Erez, A. (2016). Workplace incivility: A review of the literature and agenda for future research.Journal of Organizational Behavior,37(S1). Shuck, B., Reio Jr, T. G. (2014). Employee engagement and well-being: A moderation model and implications for practice.Journal of Leadership Organizational Studies,21(1), 43-58. Yoerger, M., Crowe, J., Allen, J. A. (2015). Participate or else!: The effect of participation in decision-making in meetings on employee engagement.Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research,67(1), 65.
Tuesday, April 14, 2020
Essay Topics About LiteratureEssay topics about literature are a great way to get more out of your writing. Of course, this doesn't mean you need to pick literary books or to write essays that glorify literature. Instead, the topic should be reflective of your interests and perspectives. Just like your writing, the topic can change with each essay, so just keep it fresh and remember to write about topics that interest you.The reason why some topics about literature are better than others is because professional educators have used them to test their students for many years. And, in that way, they have gained a better understanding of how students learn and retain information. This information is very important because it will help you develop your own essay topics that will make the most impact on your readers.What are essay topics about literature? They're nothing but an outline of what you'll write. For example, if you're planning to write a thesis statement about a character, you can write about the character's traits or the theme of the story. If you want to write about poetry, you can write about an author, a poet or even a poet's life. All these ideas can come together to form a variety of topics.As you start to write, pick a few specific ideas that you have in mind. This will let you know that you're on the right track. If you're unsure about the topic, take some time to think about how you would present it or how you would describe it in your essay.With this, you can begin to sketch out a big picture of the topic. Then, you can work on that big picture by taking some notes about the best places and times to discuss each idea. By taking notes on the big picture, you'll know where to focus on your essay and it will also give you the tools to use when writing. After all of this, you can jump ahead and start writing the essay by starting out a small story of the idea you've been thinking about. One way to do this is to write about the character and how they influence the main character or the point of view of the whole story. You can also include the overall theme of the piece.Just make sure that your essay topics about literature are reflective of your own skills and interests. If you're not interested in writing about a certain type of story, you don't have to write about it. But, that doesn't mean you can't create your own essay topics about literature if you're interested in writing about this particular subject.When you are having difficulty thinking of essay topics about literature, look for books or programs written by professionals. These are the people who understand how students learn and retain information. By choosing a great resource, you can choose from a variety of subjects that you're passionate about.
Monday, April 6, 2020
The True Story About Essay Writing Samples Why I Want Be Rodeo Queen That the Experts Dont Want You to Hear
The True Story About Essay Writing Samples Why I Want Be Rodeo Queen That the Experts Don't Want You to Hear If you're thinking about how to compose a life story task or looking for a few helpful examples, we're always prepared to aid you! The abstract artists have also had a tough time proving the value of their work as it's challenged by the argument that all facets of life cannot be totally represented in just 3 shapes. Make certain you list more examples than you believe you'll ultimately include. The one issue with our cultural heritage is it has on several occasions been invaded by means of a collection of invasions but has retained its originality and conventional characters in spite of western influences. Lies You've Been Told About Essay Writing Samples Why I Want Be Rodeo Queen Many people might not think so but a song could be hard to analyze. Writing an audio essay is an intimidating task because there are several choices and you've got to talk about something whic h is tough to explain in qualitative terms. Music essay topics have to be well chosen so you get ample scope to enlarge your imagination to make something unique. It comes from heart and when an arts or a music student is required to write a music essay he or she might have his or her mind filled with imagination and thoughts about their favorite music. Essay Writing Samples Why I Want Be Rodeo Queen Explained Student writing may be used to concentrate on unique topics, allowing students to learn and understand each topics independently. While the absolutely free essays may give you inspiration for writing, they can't be used `as is' because they won't satisfy your assignment's requirements. You can't produce a thesis, the basis of your whole paper. The chance to send a writing sample doesn't need to strike in the core of a candidate. The 30-Second Trick for Essay Writing Samples Why I Want Be Rodeo Queen It was also an opportunity to try on-demand printing. The person who owns the portrait drew it on a sheet of paper utilizing chalk. There's a particular direction of writing, which is deemed common almost worldwide. Every customer will receive a personal writer who knows just how to craft the ideal bit of writing. Christo's art is the invention of temporary, beautiful objects on a huge scale for specific outdoor websites. Indian cuisines Indian cuisine includes standard foods dating back to a number of thousands of years back. It's making something to be viewed. It's uncommon for anybody to find himself or herself an in place where there are not any artistic capabilities. How to Get Started with Essay Writing Samples Why I Want Be Rodeo Queen? The Queen receives thousands of items of correspondence each calendar year, many from her people in the united kingdom and Commonwealth, but additionally from throughout the world. Finally, both thousand-pound bulls are employed in bull riding since they have a supremacy over the cowboys. You can a lso get park essay online for a couple dollars also. It's not challenging to compose an essay on park. A park essay is one which focuses on what a park ought to be. It also states that a park is a great relief for people in the city where they can take time off and relax. If you're a fantastic writer who's in a position to produce essays on a wide range of topics, a scholarship essay contest might be a natural choice for you. An important fact that a painting essay could highlight is the emotional element of a painting. There's additionally an appreciable use of the realism art and thus it shouldn't be ignored since it is also as meaningful as abstract art. After having an ideal beginning to the history essay, now you've got to handle the body of the essay. Cubism is basically on the notion that all facets of life can be shown in three forms of solids namely cones, cubes and spheres. It's also wise to compare your interpretation of the job against the current research. Abstract art isn't much focused on the all-natural feature of the world and the art is more centered on the contemporary shapes and aspects. For me, everything started when I took myfirst actions. It is a quick paced world free of opportunity to spare. If you neglect to conclude well, all of your hard work is in vain. Thus, the very first thing which you should do when it has to do with completing your own story is to request instructions or requirements for this undertaking. Well, wait only a minute there.
Thursday, March 12, 2020
The Ultimate Manual to Final Exam Paper Essay Samples Then you have to compose an essay on such topic. There are several forms of essays, it isn't difficult to shed an eye on all your writing assignments. How to compose a very good college essay the essay may be one of the most daunting facets of a college application you've got the grades, the test scores, but now. These seven sample essays respond to a range of thought-provoking questions. This type of essay writing will ask you to use conditional sentence structures. The last essay may be the important learning project in a graduate course, permitting you to synthesize concepts, methods, and approaches in your way, and the essay is going to be employed to evaluate how you're able to work the significant topics and concepts of the seminar. To compose a reflective short essay, you must have the appropriate disposition together with the momentum. You'll observe a similar structure in a number of the essays. The author starts with a rather comprehensive story of an event or description of an individual or place. After the writer is appointed, they begin working on your essay in line with the requirements you have specified in your purchase. Finally, in the replacing practice, he is allowed to get a second opinion on the article. It is possible to also find several discounts on our site which will help you to save some more money for future orders or anything you want to spend them on. The second issue is to make sure there is enough money to cater to the expenses for the full weekend. Take all the time you've been allotted. Spending time online together with a youngster or a teenager could turn into a sufficient security measure. The Argument About Final Exam Paper Essay Samples The very first criterion captures the notion that integrity demands a level of moral reflectiveness. The Golden Rule states that there is not any way to depart from your preparation until the previous m oment. The last in-class examination period is designed for the end-of-semester examination. If you're happy and confident in what you have done and don't feel any guilt then it's a superior test to use, otherwise, then the decision wasn't ethical. Facts, Fiction and Final Exam Paper Essay Samples A youngster's welfare is the duty of the state. Communities can be exceedingly complex. B. project ought to be discounted utilizing the general firm's beta. The undertaking increases the earnings by $0. The Appeal of Final Exam Paper Essay Samples On the flip side, in regards to recalling the whole educational material on the exam eve, all students begin to panic. Students can adequately understand a topic before they can move to know the subsequent one. They lead busy lives and often forget about an upcoming deadline. They may fool themselves into thinking that they must know everything, because they managed to pass. Student participation in class discussion is likewise a significant part this program. If you do choose to provide a final, here are a couple sample finals to provide you ideas for your own. One of the most vital factors is these tests better prepare students for college. Mothers trust their child's doctor due to their expertise in the said field hence this type of relation is reached. You only have to share an experience. Stress affects people in various ways. Leadership is an element that provides a feeling of moral purpose on the way to deal with problems like inequity to be sure the promotion of a society that's regarded as more just. The ideal way to get ready for the objective part of the last exam is to take on a thorough review of the program content, particularly the main text, with special consideration provided to the learning objectives for each unit. For instance, if there was an instructor giving a lecture on the best way to change a tire they would actually de monstrate, using the nessecary equipment and tools, how a change a tire.